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TOPIC I: CITY INFLUENCES ON BIKING & WALKING

This section – Cities in Context: Influences on Biking and Walking – compiled contextual information that may be helpful as you look for potential explanations of differences between states in data related to bicycling or walking found elsewhere in this chapter.

Many of the contextual data were chosen because of studies showing a correlation between that data and rates of bicycling and walking. An example of this is population density which the 2014 Benchmarking Report explored. 1 Other contextual data were chosen because of the importance of better understanding demographic or other structural differences between states. An example of this is state general revenue per capita which may provide insight to the relative resources of a state government but is not directly tied to biking or walking-related issues. This type of contextual data was first compiled in the 2016 Benchmarking Report.

The following definitions may be useful:

  • People of Color means all people who are not reported as “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino” by the Census Bureau. White alone, not Hispanic or Latino are individuals who responded “No, not Spanish/Hispanic/Latino” and who reported “White” as their only entry in the race question. 2
  • Poverty means persons who individually or in a household have an income that is equivalent to the federal poverty level or less. The federal poverty level is set by the Department of Health and Human Services each year to determine eligibility for a variety of federal programs, such as Medicaid. When the report refers to low-income persons, low- income means workers making 150% of the federal poverty level or less. In 2018, the federal poverty level for an individual was $12,410 and for a family of 4 was $25,100. 3

Bike & Walk Scores, Population Density, & Population Change

FIGURE 3.1.1 – BIKE & WALK SCORES, POPULATION DENSITY, & POPULATION CHANGE

Legend: Purple = Small or mid-sized cities, Green = Five highest values for large cities, Red = Five lowest values for large cities, Blue = Five highest values for small or mid-sized cities, Yellow = Five lowest values for small or mid-sized cities

Footnotes 4 5 6

Population density is shown as persons per square mile. Populations for each city can be found in Chapter V: Appendix.

Demographics: Age, People of Color, Poverty & Car Ownership

Figure 3.1.2: Demographics: Age, People of Color, Poverty & Car Ownership

Legend: Purple = Small or mid-sized cities; Green = Five highest values for large cities; Red = Five lowest values for large cities; Blue = Five highest values for small or mid-sized cities; Yellow = Five lowest values for small or mid-sized cities.

Footnotes 7 8 9

Averages are simple averages, not population weighted

1

The Alliance for Biking and Walking. Bicycling and Walking in the United States: 2014 Benchmarking Report at p. 154. Available at https://bikeleague.org/sites/default/files/2014BenchmarkingReport.pdf.

2

U.S. Census Bureau. Quick Facts-White alone, not Hispanic or Latino. Available at https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/note/US/RHI825217.

3

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Available at https://www.healthcare.gov/glossary/federal-poverty-level-fpl/.

4

Walkscore.com. Walkscore and Bikescore (retrieved December 2018). Available at https://www.walkscore.com/cities-and-neighborhoods/

5

U.S. Census Bureau. 2010 Decennial Census. 2010 Census Urban and Rural Classification and Urban Area Criteria. Available at https://www.census. gov/geo/reference/ua/urban-rural-2010.html. U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Table B01003 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https:// factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml

6

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Table B01003 5-year estimates (2010 and 2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml

7

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B01002 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml (for the purpose of this table, “People of Color” means all persons not categorized as “White alone, not Hispanic”).

8

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B03002 5-year estimate (2016) (for the purpose of this table, “People of Color” means all persons not categorized as “White alone, not Hispanic”).

9

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Table B17001 5-year estimate (2016).

10

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Table S0801 5-year estimate (2016).