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TOPIC V: PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS & BIKING & WALKING

This section – Cities: Public Health Indicators & Biking & Walking – looks at chronic disease rates that often have a relationship to physical activity.

This section does not include the small or mid-sized cities included elsewhere in the Benchmarking Report because the data source for chronic diseases used, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, did not have data for at least one year for a majority of those cities.

BODY MASS INDEX – Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of the person’s height in meters. 43  When using pounds and inches, a conversion factor is used. BMI  is often used as a screening tool. It is not a diagnostic tool that assesses the health of an individual. For adults, BMI is interpreted into weight status categories: underweight, normal or healthy weight, overweight, and obese. People who have obesity, compared to people with normal or healthy weight, are at an increased risk  for many serious diseases and health conditions. 44   

Percentage of Adults Overweight or With Obesity & Active Commuting

FIGURE 3.5.1 – PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION OVERWEIGHT OR WITH OBESITY & ACTIVE COMMUTING

Legend: Green = 10 lowest values for BMI-related data, 10 highest values for commute-related data; Red = 10 highest values for BMI-related data, 10 lowest values for commute-related data

Footnotes 49   50  

RECOMMENDED AEROBIC PHYSICAL ACTIVITY – The CDC first developed aerobic physical activity guidelines in 2008 and released the 2nd edition in 2018. In both guidelines the recommended aerobic physical activity for adults is at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity each week. 45   

Recommended Aerobic Physical Activity & Biking & Walking to Work

FIGURE 3.5.2 – RECOMMENDED AEROBIC PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & BIKING & WALKING TO WORK

Legend: Green = 10 highest values; Red = 10 lowest values

Footnotes 51 52

DIABETES – There are 3 types of diabetes. 46  The data reported in the Benchmarking Report is from a survey that asks whether a person has been told by a doctor that they have diabetes and does not refer to a specific type.

Diabetes & Biking & Walking to Work

FIGURE 3.5.3 – DIABETES & BIKING & WALKING TO WORK

Legend: Green = 10 lowest values for diabetes-related data, 10 highest values for commute-related data; Red = 10 highest values for diabetes-related data, 10 lowest values for commute-related data

Footnotes 53 54

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE – “Having high blood pressure means the pressure of the blood in your blood vessels is higher than it should be.” 47 This condition increases a person’s risk for heart disease and stroke, two of the leading causes of death for Americans.

High Blood Pressure & Biking & Walking to Work

FIGURE 3.5.4 – HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE & BIKING & WALKING TO WORK

Legend: Green = 10 lowest values for high blood pressure-related data, 10 highest values for commute-related data; Red = 10 highest values for high blood pressure -related data, 10 lowest values for commute-related data

Foonotes 55 56

ASTHMA – Asthma is a chronic disease that affects a person’s lungs and can cause inflammation that makes it difficult to breathe. According to the CDC, asthma costs the United States $56 billion each year. 48  

Asthma & Biking & Walking to Work

FIGURE 3.5.5 – ASTHMA & BIKING & WALKING TO WORK

Legend: Green = 10 lowest values for asthma-related data, 10 highest values for commute-related data; Red = 10 highest values for asthma-related data, 10 lowest values for commute-related data

Footnotes 57 58

43

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About Adult BMI (last updated August 29, 2017). Available at https://cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/index.html.

44

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity (last updated June 5, 2015). Available at https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/effects/index.html.

45

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current Guidelines. Available at https://health.gov/paguidelines/second-edition/.

46

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About Diabetes. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.html.

47

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. High Blood Pressure. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/index.htm.

48

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Asthma’s Impact on the Nation Data from the CDC National Asthma Control Program. Available at https://cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf.

49

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas (2010 and 2016). Available at https://chronicdata.cdc.gov/browse?category=Behavioral+Risk+Factors.

50

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/1st/pages/index.xhtml.

51

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas (2011 and 2015). Available at https://chronicdata.cdc.gov/browse?category=Behavioral+Risk+Factors

52

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/1st/pages/index.xhtml.

53

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas (2010 and 2016). Available at https://chronicdata.cdc.gov/browse?category=Behavioral+Risk+Factors.

54

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/1st/pages/index.xhtml.

55

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas (2011 and 2015). Available at https://chronicdata.cdc.gov/browse?category=Behavioral+Risk+Factors.

56

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/1st/pages/index.xhtml.

57

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas (2010 and 2016). Available at https://chronicdata.cdc.gov/browse?category=Behavioral+Risk+Factors.

58

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/1st/pages/index.xhtml.