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TOPIC IV: DEMOGRAPHICS OF ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION COMMUTERS

The Benchmarking Report began looking at over- or under-representation of people of color and low-income commuters among those who walk to work or take transit to work in 2016.

The Benchmarking Report has not included bicycling to work in this analysis because demographic data on who rides a bicycle to work is not available in tabular data at the city level. The Census Bureau produced some national demographics data about who bikes to work in 2014. 20 Data regarding women bicycling to work is available and reported in Figure 3.4.5.

For national demographic data, please see Section 1.2 Nation: Demographics of Active Transportation.

Low Income Commuters & Walking to Work

FIGURE 3.4.1A – LOW INCOME COMMUTERS & WALKING TO WORK, LARGE CITIES

Footnotes 21 22 23

FIGURE 3.4.1B – LOW INCOME COMMUTERS & WALKING TO WORK, SMALL OR MID-SIZED CITIES

Legend: Green = High values for walking to work, low values for poverty status-related data; Orange = low values for poverty/walking inter-related data; Red = Low values for walking to work, high values for poverty status; Blue = high values for poverty/walking inter-related data

Footnotes 24 25 26

Most cities reviewed for the Benchmarking Report have an over-representation of low-income workers among people who walk to work. There are only 5 cities in our data set – Boston, Washington DC, Philadelphia, Albany NY, and St. Louis where low- income workers are under-represented among people who walk to work.

In large cities, the overall rate of walking to work seems to be related to over- or under-representation of low-income workers among people who walk to work, with cities with higher rates of walking to work being less likely to have an over-representation. In the other cities this appears to be less true.

Low Income Commuters & Taking Transit to Work

FIGURE 3.4.2A – LOW INCOME COMMUTERS & TAKING TRANSIT TO WORK, LARGE CITIES

Legend: Green = High values for taking transit to work, low values for poverty status-related data; Orange = low values for poverty/transit-related data; Red = Low values for taking transit to work, high values for poverty status; Blue = high values for poverty/transit-related data

Footnotes 27 28 29

FIGURE 3.4.2B – LOW INCOME COMMUTERS & TAKING TRANSIT TO WORK, SMALL OR MID-SIZED CITIES

Legend: Green = High values for taking transit to work, low values for poverty status-related data; Orange = low values for poverty/transit-related data; Red = Low values for taking transit to work, high values for poverty status; Blue = high values for poverty/transit-related data

Footnotes 30 31 32

In large cities, there are more large cities where under-representation of low-income workers among people who take transit to work is more common than among people who walk to work. In the other cities reviewed for the Benchmarking Report, low- income workers are over-represented among people who take transit to work in every city. This may suggest that larger cities struggle to provide access to transit for lower-income workers.

Over-representation is more likely to occur when there is a high percentage of low-income workers who take transit. This does not appear to be too correlated with having a high percentage of low-income workers – of large cities with the 5 highest percentages of low-income workers, only one – Detroit – is among the 5 highest percentages of low-income workers who take transit to work.

Commuters of Color & Walking to Work

FIGURE 3.4.3A – COMMUTERS OF COLOR & WALKING TO WORK, LARGE CITIES

Legend: Green = High values for walking to work, low values for race/ethnicity-related data; Orange = low values for race/ethnicity and walking data; Red = Low values for walking to work, high values for race/ethnicity status; Blue = high values for race/ethnicity & walking data

Footnotes 33 34 35

FIGURE 3.4.3B – COMMUTERS OF COLOR & WALKING TO WORK, SMALL OR MID-SIZED CITIES

Legend: Green = High values for walking to work, low values for race/ethnicity-related data; Orange = low values for race/ethnicity and walking data; Red = Low values for walking to work, high values for race/ethnicity status; Blue = high values for race/ethnicity & walking data

Footnotes 36 37 38

People of color are not over-represented among people who walk to work to the same extent as people who have lower incomes. In larger cities, many of the cities with lower rates of walking to work also have people of color over-represented among those who walk to work. Some of the cities, such as Raleigh and Oklahoma City, where people of color are over-represented among people who walk to work also have some of the lower Walk Scores of cities reviewed in the Benchmarking Report.

Commuters of Color & Taking Transit to Work

FIGURE 3.4.4A – COMMUTERS OF COLOR & TAKING TRANSIT TO WORK, LARGE CITIES

Legend: Green = High values for taking transit to work, low values for race/ethnicity-related data; Orange = low values for race/ethnicity & transit data; Red = Low values for taking transit to work, high values for race/ethnicity; Blue = high values for race/ethnicity & transit data

Footnotes 36 37 38

FIGURE 3.4.4B- COMMUTERS OF COLOR & TAKING TRANSIT TO WORK, SMALL OR MID-SIZED CITIES

Legend: Green = High values for taking transit to work, low values for race/ethnicity-related data; Orange = low values for race/ethnicity & transit data; Red = Low values for taking transit to work, high values for race/ethnicity; Blue = high values for race/ethnicity & transit data

Footnotes 39 40 41

People of color are much more likely to be over-represented among people who take transit to work than among people who walk to work. In 72% of the large cities reviewed (36 out of 50), people of color are over-represented by at least 10 percentage points among people who take transit to work. People of color are over-represented among people who take transit to work in every one of the other cities reviewed for the Benchmarking Report.

Women Biking & Walking to Work

FIGURE 3.4.5A – WOMEN BIKING & WALKING TO WORK, LARGE CITIES

Legend: Green = 10 highest values; Red = 10 lowest values

Footnote 41

FIGURE 3.4.5B – WOMEN BIKING & WALKING TO WORK, SMALL OR MID-SIZED CITIES

Legend: Green = 10 highest values; Red = 10 lowest values

Footnote 42

Women are under-represented among people who walk to work in 68% of the 50 largest cities in the United States.

Women are under-represented among people who bike to work  in every one of the 50 largest cities in the United States and in each  of the other cities reviewed for the Benchmarking Report. Davis, California – the city with the highest rate of bicycling to work in the United States – has the least under- representation of women in all cities reviewed for this report.

20

Brian McKenzie. U.S. Census Bureau. Modes Less Traveled – Bicycling and Walking to Work in the United States: 2008-2012 (2014). Available at https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/acs-25.pdf

21

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 1-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/ pages/index.xhtml.

22

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B17001 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, low-income refers to workers making 150% of the federal poverty level or less).

23

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B08122 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml.

24

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 1-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/ pages/index.xhtml.

25

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B17001 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, low-income refers to workers making 150% of the federal poverty level or less).

26

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B08122 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml.

27

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 1-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/ pages/index.xhtml.

28

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B17001 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, low-income refers to workers making 150% of the federal poverty level or less).

29

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B08122 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml.

30

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 1-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/ pages/index.xhtml.

31

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B17001 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, low-income refers to workers making 150% of the federal poverty level or less).

32

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B08122 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml.

33

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 1-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/ pages/index.xhtml.

34

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B08105H 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, “People of Color” refers to all persons who are not “White Alone, Not Hispanic or Latino”).

35

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 1-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/ pages/index.xhtml.

36

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B08105H 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, “People of Color” refers to all persons who are not “White Alone, Not Hispanic or Latino”).

37

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 1-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/ pages/index.xhtml.

38

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B08105H 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, “People of Color” refers to all persons who are not “White Alone, Not Hispanic or Latino”).

39

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 1-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/ pages/index.xhtml.

40

U.S. Census Bureau. ACS Table B08105H 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, “People of Color” refers to all persons who are not “White Alone, Not Hispanic or Latino”).

41

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/1st/pages/index.xhtml.

42

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey (ACS) Table B08006 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/1st/pages/index.xhtml.