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TOPIC II: DEMOGRAPHICS OF ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION

Percent of Bicycling & Walking Trips by Women

FIGURE 1.2.1 – PERCENT OF TRIPS BY FEMALES

Footnote 12

Percent of Bicycling & Walking Commuters Who Are Women

FIGURE 1.2.2 – PERCENT OF BIKING & WALKING COMMUTERS WHO ARE FEMALE

Footnote 13

Commute to work data show that women are under- represented among people who bicycle, but not among people who walk. This is also seen in all bicycling and walking trips through NHTS data. Nationally, women represent 50.8% of the population of the United States 14  and 47.0% of commuters, but only 30.3% of all bicycling trips and only 28.0% of bicycle commuters. Nevertheless, these relatively modest participation percentages represent increases from prior years.

Children & Youth Bicycling & Walking

FIGURE 1.2.3 – PERCENT OF TRIPS BY CHILDREN & YOUTH (AGE 5 TO 15)

Footnote 15

Data from the NHTS indicates that youth (people under 16 years old) are walking and biking less than in the past. There were significant drops in the percentage of both walking and biking trips by youth.

Historically, youth have represented a disproportionately high percent of bicycle trips. The 2017 NHTS data shows a significant drop to youth representing only 22.1% of bicycle trips, much more closely in line with their percentage of the US population (21.2% according to the 2010 Census). The youth percentage of walking trips also decreased, but not as steeply from 17.2% of trips in 2009 to 12.4% in 2017.

The decreases seen in the proportion of trips by youth completed by biking or walking are also seen in the number of trips, distances, and minutes of by biking and walking.

FIGURE 1.2.4 – BREAKDOWN OF DATA BY TRIPS, TIME, & DISTANCE

However, data from the National Center for Safe Routes to School (NCSRTS) estimates that walking to school increased between 2007/8 and 2014, while biking to school stayed relatively consistent. The NCSRTS data is based on “720,000 parent surveys collected by nearly 6,500 schools throughout the United States starting in 2007 and extending through 2014. 16 ” The parent survey “captures the usual travel mode of students and parents’ perceptions about walking and bicycling between home and school. 17

Seniors Bicycling & Walking

FIGURE 1.2.5 – PERCENT OF TRIPS BY SENIORS (AGE 65+)

Data from the 2017 NHTS shows a statistically significant increase in the percent of walking trips attributed to people over 65 years of age. The percentage of walking trips by people over 65 years of age rose from 8.8% in 2009 to 13.8% in 2017. 18 This increase was greater than the increase in the share of the U.S. population that is aged 65 years or older, which increased from 13.1% in the 2010 Census to 14.5% in the 2016 1-year ACS estimate. 19  

After increasing between 2001 and 2009, the percentage of bicycling trips attributable to people over 65 years of age did not change significantly between 2009 and 2017, staying stable at 6% of all bicycling trips according to the NHTS. 20

Low-Income Households Bicycling, Walking, & Using Transit

FIGURE 1.2.6 – PERCENT OF BIKING, WALKING, & TRANSIT TRIPS BY PEOPLE FROM HOUSEHOLDS WITH INCOME OF LESS THAN $25,000 PER YEAR

According to the 2017 NHTS, the proportion of bicycling and walking trips made by people from households with low incomes (incomes of less than $25,000 per year) is similar or slightly more than the percentage of total population from those households (21.2% according to the 2016 ACS) . Although people from low-income households represented significantly smaller proportion of transit trips in 2017 compared to 2009, they are still over-represented among transit users.

Data from the Census Bureau has suggested that bicycling and walking are much more common as a means of commute to work at lower income levels. The proportion of workers who walk or bike to work is progressively lower across income categories, up to about $100,000 per year, beyond which the prevalence is fairly stable or slightly higher at very high-income levels.

FIGURE 1.2.7b – WALKING TO WORK BY HOUSEHOLD INCOME: 2008-2012
FIGURE 1.2.7a – BIKING TO WORK BY HOUSEHOLD INCOME: 2008-2012

Footnote 21

Bicycling & Walking by People of Color

FIGURE 1.2.8 – PERCENT OF BIKING & WALKING TRIPS BY PEOPLE OF COLOR

Footnote 22

FIGURE 1.2.9 – RATES OF BIKING & WALKING TO WORK BY RACE & ETHNICITY, 2008-2012

According to the 2010 Census, about 28% of the United States population is non-White. 23 Data from NHTS suggests people of color account for a smaller proportion of bicycle trips (about 19%) than their population share would suggest if all races and ethnicities bicycled at the same rate. For walking, people of color make about 26% of trips, which is closer to their population share. This suggests an opportunity to increase biking as a transportation option among people of color.

12

Ralph Buehler (2017). Analysis of 2017 and 2009 National Household Travel Survey data for the League of American Bicyclists

13

U.S. Census Bureau (2006-2016). American Community Survey Tables B08006 1-year estimates. Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/ jsf/pages/index.xhtml.

14

U.S. Census Bureau (2016). American Community Survey Table B01003 1-year estimate. Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/ index.xhtml.

15

For 2001 NHTS data see The Alliance for Biking and Walking (2010). Bicycling and Walking in the United States: 2010 Benchmarking Report. Available at https://bikeleague.org/sites/default/files/2010BenchmarkingReport.pdf. Ralph Buehler (2017). Analysis of 2009 and 2017 National Household Travel Survey data for the League of American Bicyclists.

16

The National Center for Safe Routes to School (2016). Trends in Bicycling to School from 2007 to 2014 at p. 5. Available at http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/pdf/Community_SRTSfederal_Trends.pdf.

17

The National Center for Safe Routes to School (2016). Trends in Bicycling to School from 2007 to 2014 at p. 5. Available at http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/pdf/Community_SRTSfederal_Trends.pdf.

18

Ralph Buehler (2017). Analysis of 2017 and 2009 National Household Travel Survey data for the League of American

19

U.S. Census Bureau (2016). 2010 Decennial Census and American Community Survey Table B01003 1-year estimate. Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml.

20

For 2001 NHTS data see The Alliance for Biking and Walking (2010). Bicycling and Walking in the United States: 2010 Benchmarking Report. Available at https://bikeleague.org/sites/default/files/2010BenchmarkingReport.pdf. Ralph Buehler (2017). Analysis of 2009 and 2017 National Household Travel Survey data for the League of American Bicyclists.

21

U.S. Census Bureau (2014). Modes Less Traveled. Available at https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/acs-25.pdf (adapted from Figure 11 at p. 13).

22

Ralph Buehler (2017). Analysis of 2009 and 2017 National Household Travel Survey data for the League of American Bicyclists. (For this analysis, People of Color means all persons who are not non-Hispanic White).

23

U.S. Census Bureau. 2010 Decennial Census Table QT-P3. Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml.