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TOPIC V: FEDERAL FUNDING & PLANNING FOR BIKING & WALKING

Federal Funding for Bicycling & Walking Infrastructure

FIGURE 1.5.1 – # OF PROJECTS & TOTAL OBLIGATIONS TO PEDESTRIANS & BICYCLE FACILITIES & PROGRAMS BY YEAR

Footnote 52

The number of bicycle and pedestrian projects funded by federal programs was not tracked until 1992 after the passage of the landmark Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA created the Transportation Enhancements Program, which for the first time provided a program where bicycle and pedestrian projects were emphasized as three often eligible project types. This program provided more than $1 billion for eligible projects during the six years of funding authorized by ISTEA. Prior to ISTEA, 53 federal transportation programs had spent less than $48 million on bicycle and pedestrian projects in the preceding 18 years. 54

So far, bicycling and pedestrian funding reached its highest point after the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which provided an influx of “stimulus” funding for transportation infrastructure.

There has usually been a close correlation between federal spending on bicycling and walking and the number of new projects, but since 2014 this relationship seems to have changed – with spending increasing despite fewer new projects.

Federal Funding Programs for Bicycling & Walking Infrastructure

FIGURE 1.5.2 – FEDERAL FUNDING FOR BIKING & WALKING PROJECTS & PROGRAMS BY FHWA FUNDING PROGRAMS

Footnote 55

Over time, bicycle and pedestrian projects have become funded from a broader range of federal funding programs. In 1994, over 85% of funding for bicycle and pedestrian projects came from the Transportation Enhancements Program – which funded at least 50% of bicycle and pedestrian projects until 2008. The prominent increase in “All Other Funds” in the  graph above coincides with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act enacted in 2009. Since 2008, no federal funding program has provided more than 50% of funding for bicycle and pedestrian projects.

The Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act required states to report the number and value of project applications received for TAP funds. In 2016, the first year that states reported the number and value of project applications, states did not fund approximately 50% of applications representing over $1.3 billion in projects. 56

Federal Planning for Biking & Walking

FIGURE 1.5.3 – FEDERAL PLANNING FOR BIKING & WALKING

Footnotes 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

52

Federal Highway Administration. Federal-Aid Highway Program Funding for Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities and Programs. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/funding/bipedfund.cfm

53

Fazzalaro, J. Connecticut Office of Legislative Research (2003). RE: Federal Transportation Funds for Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities. Available at https://www.cga.ct.gov/PS98/rpt%5Colr%5Chtm/98-R-0010.htm.

54

Federal Highway Administration. Federal-Aid Highway Program Funding for Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities and Programs. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/funding/bipedfund.cfm. See also Federal Highway Administration. Federal-Aid Highway Program Funding 1988-1991 for Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities and Programs. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/funding/bipedfund_preistea.cfm.

55

Federal Highway Administration. Federal-Aid Highway Program Funding for Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities and Programs, FY 1992 to 2017 Obligations. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/funding/bipedfund.cfm .

56

Federal Highway Administration. Transportation Alternatives Annual Report. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/transportation_alternatives/annual_reports/.

57

Federal Highway Administration. 2015 Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges, and Transit: Conditions & Performance Chapter 11 Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/2015cpr/chap11.cfm#_Toc446493398.

58

Federal Highway Administration. 2015 Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges, and Transit: Conditions & Performance Chapter 11 Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/2015cpr/chap11.cfm#_Toc446493398.

59

Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. What We Do: PBIC Mission. Available at http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/whatwedo.cfm.

60

Federal Highway Administration. 2015 Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges, and Transit: Conditions & Performance Chapter 11 Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/2015cpr/chap11.cfm#_Toc446493398.

61

Federal Highway Administration. Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Focus States and Cities. Available at https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/ped_focus/.

62

Federal Highway Administration. 2015 Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges, and Transit: Conditions & Performance Chapter 11 Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/2015cpr/chap11.cfm#_Toc446493398.

63

Federal Highway Administration. BIKESAFE Background. Available at http://www.pedbikesafe.org/bikesafe/authors.cfm.

64

U.S. Department of Transportation. United States Department of Transportation Policy Statement on Bicycle and Pedestrian Accommodation Regulations and Recommendations. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/guidance/policy_accom.cfm.

65

Federal Highway Administration. Pedestrian Safety Strategic Plan: Recommendations for Research and Product Development. Available at https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/pssp/fhwasa10035/.

66

Federal Highway Administration. 2015 Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges, and Transit: Conditions & Performance Chapter 11 Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/2015cpr/chap11.cfm#_Toc446493398.

67

Federal Highway Administration. Memorandum: Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Design Flexibility. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/guidance/.

68

Federal Highway Administration. Separated Bike Lane Planning and Design Guide. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_ pedestrian/publications/separated_bikelane_pdg/page00.cfm.

69

Federal Highway Administration. A Focused Approach to Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/17julaug/06.cfm.

70

Federal Highway Administration. Coding Nonmotorized Station Location Information in the 2016 Traffic Monitoring Guide Format. Available at https:// www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/publications/tmg_coding/.

71

Federal Highway Administration. Safety Performance Management (Safety PM). Available at https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/spm/state_safety_ targets/.