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TOPIC IV: DEMOGRAPHICS OF ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION COMMUTERS

The Benchmarking Report began looking at over- or under-representation of people of color and low-income commuters among those who walk to work or take transit to work in 2016. The Benchmarking Report has not included bicycling to work in this analysis because demographic data on who rides a bicycle to work is not available in tabular data at the state level. The Census Bureau produced some national demographics data about who bikes to work in 2014. 23 Data regarding women bicycling to work is available and reported in Figure 2.4.5. For national demographic data, please see Section 1.2 Nation: Demographics of Active Transportation.

2.4.1 –  LOW INCOME COMMUTERS &  WALKING TO WORK – In every state, people who walk are more likely to have incomes  of 150% of the federal poverty level or less than the general population. This highlights the important role that active transportation modes, and transportation options that do not require a personal motor vehicle, play in allowing  lower income people access to jobs. The Census Bureau does not provide a tabular estimate for the income levels of people who bike to work.

FIGURE 2.4.1 – LOW INCOME COMMUTERS & WALKING TO WORK

Footnote 24

2.4.2 – LOW INCOME COMMUTERS &  TAKING  TRANSIT  TO  WORK – As with walking to work, in every state, people who take transit to work are more likely to have incomes of 150% of the federal poverty level or less than the general population of workers. However, unlike walking to work there appears to be a correlation between low rates of taking transit to work and over-representation – with states where few people take transit to work being more likely to have an over-representation of lower income workers taking transit. Idaho is a notable exception.

FIGURE 2.4.2 – LOW INCOME COMMUTERS & TAKING TRANSIT TO WORK

Footnote 25

2.4.3 – COMMUTERS OF COLOR & WALKING TO WORK – In all but a handful of states people of color are over-represented among people who commute to work by walking. The only states where people of color are under-represented among people who walk to work are the three states with the largest percentage of workers of color – Hawaii, California, and New Mexico.

FIGURE 2.4.3 – COMMUTERS OF COLOR & WALKING TO WORK

Footnote 26

2.4.4 – COMMUTERS OF COLOR & TAKING TRANSIT TO WORK – In all but a handful of states people of color are over- represented among people who take transit to work by walking. Unlike walking to work, having a large percentage of commuters of color does not appear as associated with less over-representation of people of color among people who take transit to work.

FIGURE 2.4.4 – COMMUTERS OF COLOR & TAKING TRANSIT TO WORK

Footnote 27

2.4.5 – ACTIVE COMMUTING BY WOMEN – In every state, women are under-represented among people who bike to work by at least 10 percentage points. This widespread under-representation is not seen in walking to work, which only has one state where women are under-represented by more than 10 percentage points.

FIGURE 2.4.5 – ACTIVE COMMUTING BY WOMEN

Footnote 28

23

Brian McKenzie. U.S. Census Bureau. Modes Less Traveled – Bicycling and Walking to Work in the United States: 2008-2012 (2014). Available at https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/acs-25.pdf

24

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Tables B17001 and B08122 1-year estimates (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/ nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, low-income refers to workers making 150% of the federal poverty level or less).

25

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Tables B17001 and B08122 1-year estimates (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/ nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, low-income refers to workers making 150% of the federal poverty level or less).

26

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Tables B08006 1-year estimate, B08006 and B08105H 5-year estimates (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, People of Color means persons who are not categorized as “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino).

27

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Tables B08006 1-year estimate, B08006 and B08105H 5-year estimates (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. (For the purpose of this chart, People of Color means persons who are not categorized as “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino).

28

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Tables B08006 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pag- es/index.xhtml.