Archives

Categories

  • No categories

TOPIC I: STATES IN CONTEXT: INFLUENCES ON BIKING & WALKING

This section – States in Context: Influences on Biking and Walking – compiled contextual information that may be helpful as you look for potential explanations of differences between states in data related to bicycling or walking found elsewhere in this chapter.

Many of the contextual data were chosen because of studies showing a correlation between that data and rates of bicycling and walking. An example of this is population density which the 2014 Benchmarking Report explored. 1

Other contextual data were chosen because of the importance of better understanding demographic or other structural differences between states. An example of this is state general revenue per capita which may provide insight to the relative resources of a state government but is not directly tied to biking or walking-related issues.

This type of contextual data was first compiled in the 2016 Benchmarking Report.

The following definitions may be useful:

  • People of Color means all people who are not reported as “White alone, not Hispanic or Latino” by the Census Bureau. White alone,  not Hispanic or Latino are individuals who responded “No, not Spanish/Hispanic/Latino” and who reported “White” as their only entry in the race question. 2
  • Poverty means persons who individually or in a household have an income that is equivalent to the federal poverty level or less. The federal poverty level is set by the Department of Health and Human Services each year to determine eligibility for a variety of  federal  programs, such as Medicaid. When the report refers to people with low-income , low-income means workers making 150% of the federal poverty level or less. In 2018, the federal poverty level for an individual was $12,410 and for a family of 4 was $25,100. 3
FIGURE 2.1.1 – URBAN AREA, POPULATION DENSITY, & STATE REVENUE PER CAPITA

Footnotes 4 5 6

FIGURE 2.1.2 – DEMOGRAPHICS: PEOPLE OF COLOR, POVERTY, & AGE

Footnotes 7 8 9

FIGURE 2.1.3 – POPULATION CHANGE, CAR OWNERSHIP, & MILES OF ROAD

Footnotes 10 11 12

1

The Alliance for Biking and Walking. Bicycling and Walking in the United States: 2014 Benchmarking Report at p. 154. Available at https://bikeleague. org/sites/default/files/2014BenchmarkingReport.pdf.

2

U.S. Census Bureau. Quick Facts-White alone, not Hispanic or Latino. Available at https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/note/US/RHI825217.

3

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Available at https://www.healthcare.gov/glossary/federal-poverty-level-fpl/.

4

U.S. Census Bureau. 2010 Decennial Census. 2010 Census Urban and Rural Classification and Urban Area Criteria. Available at https://www.census. gov/geo/reference/ua/urban-rural-2010.html.

5

See footnote 4 and U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Table B01003 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/ faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml.

6

U.S. Census Bureau. 2015 Annual Surveys of State and Local Government Finances. Available at https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/gov-finances.html.

7

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Table B02001 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/ index.xhtml.

8

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Table B17001 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/ index.xhtml.

9

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Table B01002 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/ index.xhtml.

10

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Table B01003 5-year estimates (2010 and 2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/ jsf/pages/index.xhtml.

11

U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Table B08201 5-year estimate (2016). Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/ index.xhtml.

12

Federal Highway Highway Statistics 2016 State Table HM10 Length by Ownership. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ policyinformation/statistics/2016/ and footnote 4.